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The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market

The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market

Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy
This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets.
The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1.
However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.

Demand for U.S. Dollars

Firstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4.

https://preview.redd.it/d4xalwdyz8p51.png?width=535&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f0556c6aa6b29016c9b135f3279e8337dfee2a6

https://preview.redd.it/wucg40kzz8p51.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=71257fec29b43e0fc0df1bf04363717e3b52478f
This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate.

https://preview.redd.it/6956j6f109p51.png?width=487&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccea257a4e9524c11df25737cac961308b542b69
Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions.

Source: Bloomberg
Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.

The Rise of Crypto Dollars

Due to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13.

https://preview.redd.it/3vq7v1jg09p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f11b5f5245a8c335ccc60432873e9bad2eb1e1
An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.

Institutional Developments

In addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero.
J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications.
Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19.

https://preview.redd.it/lgb1f2rw19p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=040bb0deed0499df6bf08a072fd7c4a442a826a0
These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.

Future Opportunities

There is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation. Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry.
There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish.
In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world.
Thank you.

Reference:
[1] How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia
[2] The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist
[3] Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath
[4] Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers
[5] Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS
[6] Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider
[7] McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company
[8] Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates
[9] Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC
[10] Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters
[11] Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis
[12] The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg
[13] Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com
[14] Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes
[15] New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk
[16] Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank
[17] Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan
[18] Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News
[19] Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS
[20] Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
submitted by Tokenomy to tokenomyofficial [link] [comments]

ECON 2020: Macroeconomics, inflation and the Feds

Original post got deleted by the auto-mods last week obviously..
Anyways for all those who use big words like Macroeconomics etc, here is some education which the books don’t teach you.
Lot of confusion here about money printing by Feds leading to inflation etc. While it is true that money-printing can lead to hyper-inflation, but we need to look at it from a more fundamental perspective.
The first most important question to ask what is the currency that is being printed and what is it backed by? This is where we flaunt our huge USD dicks. USD is the predominant reserve currency in the world, countries essentially trust the almighty dollar, which then results in other currencies being backed by some sort of USD collateral. Most respectable central banks around the world have forex reserves in USD to back up not only their currency but also inter country transactions. This is where the Fed can literally have no limits on being jacked to the tits on printing money. Here is where it gets interesting, since most of the securities in the World have dollar as the underlying medium, if the US economy and dollar collapse, that will trigger a financial meltdown like none other virtually shaking the foundation of modern economics.
For more information on Global banking, Fed repo etc, read this well researched post:
https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/fe5s7e/the_fed_repos_are_an_attempt_to_prop_up_the/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=ios_app&utm_name=iossmf
Now one might say hey but that makes it very unfair and it seems like the US fed can fucking do whatever they want. Yes this is correct, they will. because they are the fucking makers of u/WSBGod; they are the WorldStreetBankingGod Therefore the World losing confidence in the dollar is a very weak argument.
For further understanding on why collapse of dollar is unlikely, please read the article below:
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex-currencies/091416/what-would-it-take-us-dollar-collapse.asp
Now coming to the meat of the argument about printing money leading to inflation which is partially true but not really, remember QE around the world in developed countries (especially the ones with strong currencies) has never resulted monetary inflation that the economists know of, but asset price inflation (including equity) is a different story. This is where i think there might be a concern of an impeding global financial crisis. Below are the articles which talk about inflation, QE etc
https://www.piie.com/sites/default/files/publications/pb/pb15-7.pdf
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/022615/why-didnt-quantitative-easing-lead-hyperinflation.asp
Asset price inflation is the real danger here and that is why QE cannot be maintained without setting the stage for another, and much bigger and even more magnificent collapse of the financial system, the Big One if you will, and all the real-economy mayhem it would entail.
Now the feds and other central banks around the world have learnt key lessons from the 2008 financial crisis and with the banks now being more connected than ever before in a global economy, everyone will be looking to the Fed to lead them out of the bear-hole when we get to it. I think people really underestimate the power of the Federal reserve and are really autsitic if they think that a bat flu will take SPY to $0. The fact that we are still the most dominant economy in the World coupled with the USD being the reserve currency gives Fed a free hand to print money without any credibility crisis as long as they use that as the last measure to stop the “GLOBAL” economic crisis. Note that the key word here is global, because when the whole world is on fire, nobody bothers much about whether you started the fire as long as you are also the one who is extinguishing it. Another article to help understand this point is the one below:
https://www.ft.com/content/7562d1dc-bbb3-11e5-bf7e-8a339b6f2164
TL;DR: Don’t fight the Feds, they can print money, will print money and will get away with printing money to start the next bull run. Most macroeconomic theories and historical examples don’t apply to the US since we are both the creator and the player in the game. Markets might sell-off in short-term, but long term will go up as long as the Feds and the US government don’t create a credibility crisis domestically and internationally. Don’t go all in on puts, because you be up against a very formidable force in the Federal reserve and the US Government.
PS: I am not an economist but definitely an Autist. I am 10k in various puts and hoping to get out tomorrow when it plunges and sit on the sidelines.
Edit 1: I was in puts till end of last week, this post was made originally a week back. Currently in calls.
submitted by kilonova17 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Macroeconomics, inflation and the Feds

Macroeconomics, inflation and the Fed
Lot of confusion here about money printing by Feds leading to inflation etc. While it is true that money-printing can lead to hyper-inflation, but we need to look at it from a more fundamental perspective.
The first most important question to ask what is the currency that is being printed and what is it backed by? This is where we flaunt our huge USD dicks. USD is the predominant reserve currency in the world, countries essentially trust the almighty dollar, which then results in other currencies being backed by some sort of USD collateral. Most respectable central banks around the world have forex reserves in USD to back up not only their currency but also inter country transactions. This is where the Fed can literally have no limits on being jacked to the tits on printing money. Here is where it gets interesting, since most of the securities in the World have dollar as the underlying medium, if the US economy and dollar collapse, that will trigger a financial meltdown like none other virtually shaking the foundation of modern economics.
For more information on Global banking, Fed repo etc, read this well researched post:
https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/fe5s7e/the_fed_repos_are_an_attempt_to_prop_up_the/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=ios_app&utm_name=iossmf
Now one might say hey but that makes it very unfair and it seems like the US fed can fucking do whatever they want. Yes this is correct, they will. because they are the fucking makers of u/WSBGod; they are the WorldStreetBankingGod Therefore the World losing confidence in the dollar is a very weak argument.
For further understanding on why collapse of dollar is unlikely, please read the article below:
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/forex-currencies/091416/what-would-it-take-us-dollar-collapse.asp
Now coming to the meat of the argument about printing money leading to inflation which is partially true but not really, remember QE around the world in developed countries (especially the ones with strong currencies) has never resulted monetary inflation that the economists know of, but asset price inflation (including equity) is a different story. This is where i think there might be a concern of an impeding global financial crisis. Below are the articles which talk about inflation, QE etc
https://wolfstreet.com/2018/10/09/why-did-qe-money-printing-not-cause-consumer-price-inflation/
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/022615/why-didnt-quantitative-easing-lead-hyperinflation.asp
As the first article states, asset price inflation is the real danger here and rightly mentions that “This is why QE cannot be maintained without setting the stage for another, and much bigger and even more magnificent collapse of the financial system, the Big One if you will, and all the real-economy mayhem it would entail”
Now the feds and other central banks around the world have learnt key lessons from the 2008 financial crisis and with the banks now being more connected than ever before in a global economy, everyone will be looking to the Fed to lead them out of the bear-hole when we get to it. I think people really underestimate the power of the Federal reserve and are really autsitic if they think that a bat flu will take SPY to $0. The fact that we are still the most dominant economy in the World coupled with the USD being the reserve currency gives Fed a free hand to print money without any credibility crisis as long as they use that as the last measure to stop the “GLOBAL” economic crisis. Note that the key word here is global, because when the whole world is on fire, nobody bothers much about whether you started the fire as long as you are also the one who is extinguishing it. Another article to help understand this point is the one below:
https://www.ft.com/content/7562d1dc-bbb3-11e5-bf7e-8a339b6f2164
TL;DR: Don’t fight the Feds, they can print money, will print money and will get away with printing money to start the next bull run. Most macroeconomic theories and historical examples don’t apply to the US since we are both the creator and the player in the game. Markets might sell-off in short-term, but long term will go up as long as the Feds and the US government don’t create a credibility crisis domestically and internationally. Don’t go all in on puts, because you be up against a very formidable force in the Federal reserve and the US Government.
PS: I am not an economist but definitely an Autist. I am 10k in various puts and hoping to get out tomorrow when it plunges and sit on the sidelines.
submitted by kilonova17 to Winkerpack [link] [comments]

The Petrodollar Is The Root of All Evil

So here is the core element of what I believe, drives US foreign policy (Wars/Conflicts/Sanctions) and also domestic policy. I tried to trim my draft down so it's not a TLDR, but not leave out any critical information or citations/sources. This is pulled directly from this brief article: Petrodollar
"KEY TAKEAWAYS
This list of facts should make clear just how dependent US currency is on the global oil economy. Which brings us to something called The Triffin Dilemma .
"By "agreeing" to have its currency used as a reserve currency, a country pins its hands behind its back.
In order to keep the global economy chugging along, it may have to inject large amounts of currency into circulation, driving up inflation at home. The more popular the reserve currency is relative to other currencies, the higher its exchange rate and the less competitive domestic exporting industries become. This causes a trade deficit for the currency-issuing country, but makes the world happy. If the reserve currency country instead decides to focus on domestic monetary policy by not issuing more currency then the world is unhappy."
"Reserve Currency ParadoxBecoming a reserve currency presents countries with a paradox. They want the "interest-free" loan generated by selling currency to foreign governments, and the ability to raise capital quickly, because of high demand for reserve currency-denominated bonds. At the same time they want to be able to use capital and monetary policy to ensure that domestic industries are competitive in the world market, and to make sure that the domestic economy is healthy and not running large trade deficits.
Unfortunately, both of these ideas – cheap sources of capital and positive trade balances – can't really happen at the same time."
Obviously, the US and global economy is a complex system with many moving parts but I think, just this small amount of information begins to clarify the bigger picture. It seems as though most people have accepted the idea that we have engaged in bad faith wars in the name of stealing oil, which is true on some level, but we are not actually trying to seize the oil, we are trying to force the entire world to participate in OUR oil economy in a way that benefits us the most.
Which leads me to the final part of this post. The Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) is a collection of approximately 120 nations that have joined together, starting back during the cold war, in an effort to remain independent and not be pressured in to choosing sides between the US and Russia. Many of these countries, such as Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya and most recently, Venezuela and Syria, have either dropped the petrodollar or made efforts to trade in other currencies. If this list looks familiar, it's because we have invaded, occupied and/or attempted regime change backed by MSM reporting of human rights violations or threat of nuclear proliferation. Obviously, we have pretty solid evidence that most of these claims were completely false.
One of the main focuses of NAM these days, has been to conduct trade and handle the oil on their land, any way they see fit and they have been mounting a pretty strong coalition in response to the insanely harsh sanctions that we have tried to levy. Article About NAM and US Sanctions . This is essentially economic terrorism and unfortunately, most people, including myself, are not quite able to grasp just how de-stabilizing these sanctions are but it is slowly becoming clear to the public that we have been carrying out this policy of global dominance for decades.
The Trump WH and John Bolton just happen to be much more open about their motives: In January, White House National Security Advisor John Bolton issued a veiled threat on Twitter: My advice to bankers, brokers, traders, facilitators, and other businesses: don’t deal in gold, oil, or other Venezuelan commodities being stolen from the Venezuelan people by the Maduro mafia. We stand ready to continue to take action.
On his Twitter account, Trump insisted, “We have only one real currency in the USA, and it is stronger than ever, both dependable and reliable. It is by far the most dominant currency anywhere in the World, and it will always stay that way. It is called the United States Dollar!”
I realize that this may not be the most exciting topic, considering the kind of news we have been peppered with recently, but I think it is important for people to consider. It seems pretty clear that almost all of our military operations around the world have everything to do with giant oil companies, defense contractors and the petrodollar and have nothing to do with spreading democracy or freeing civilians from oppressive regimes. Our allegiance with Saudi Arabia makes a lot more sense and our insane obsession on Russia also starts to take focus. Russia is also a member of NAM and is basically the biggest country that has chosen to defy the US. And since we can't push them around like a weaker country, we rely on a constant fear-mongering campaign by our media outlets.
Following the NAM summit, Venezuelan Economy Minister Tareck El Aissami announced his country’s establishment of a payment system to meet obligations to Russia that will be covered with rubles. The developments have sent the US establishment into a frenzy.
Still working on part 2, but hope some people will find this informative....
submitted by rustcole01 to WayOfTheBern [link] [comments]

The Forex Indicator Number One!

Hello folk,
I wanted to share my biggest experience on how to trade the forex market.
I got to know that the smart money is in the yield market. Everything what happens in world shows the yield market. And there is one rule for currencies and their strength.
“Currencies follow yields/ interest rate”
It’s simple and you have to repeat this sentence hundreds of times in your mind. Currencies follow yields, since the interest rate tells you how worth the money is. It’s the only measurement for money. That’s what the central banks tell you, how much worth is the currency.
Now you might ask “You want me to wait for interest rate decisions of the central banks?” No! I’m telling you, read what the bond market is telling you. How is the 10years Treasury Yield moving? How is the shape of the Yield Curve and where is it going? It tells you about the economy conditions (in this case the USA) and most important the inflation. Every country has bonds they sell to get loan. In Europe you take an eye on Germany, France and Italy since they are the most strongest countries in Europe.
“So you are telling me, checking the yield curve tells me about how much worth the money is, the economy conditions and most important the inflation?” Yes!!
“What is the Yield Curve and how to understand the spread between US 10y and Japan 10y yields?”
Well, this takes to much to explain. I can tell you this: Spread between 2 Yields from different countries tells you where the currency pair will go! You can learn about the Yield Curve a lot in the internet.
Most important Links:
The Bond Market as a Forecaster for Economic Conditions
All about the Yield Curve
Steepening and Flattening Yield Curve
Bond Spreads: A Leading Indicator For Forex
I can recommend you: Read everything you can find about yields, yield curve, yield market, yield predictions, economic influence in bond yields and all the working papers which you can find in the internet about the yield curve. And if you are really smart, make an excel sheet out of it and trade the currency market like a pro.
“Currencies follow yields/ interest rate”
EDIT:
The following links are informative for you too:
Yields of all maturities and the YIELD CURVE:
World Government Bonds
To track all central bank monetary policies:
Global Monetary Policy
submitted by Ken_Edwards to Forex [link] [comments]

Naive Optimism?

I made this comment in an earlier post and was just wondering if anyone could clarify my mistakes in considering what XRP could be.
"In an interview with Fortune, Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse said the role of specific events is overstated in assessing the value of XRP. Instead, he attributed the currency’s value to its usefulness for processing transactions, and its ability to provide liquidity for big banks."
http://fortune.com/2017/08/23/ripple/
In regards to liquidity, today $10 may seem volatile but maybe using an example of gold in 1920 might help. Gold backed fiat currencies made exchange easier because rather than pegging one fiat to another (USD/Yuan) we had an asset everyone agrees represented overall supply. At the moment our system is subject to the strength of a nations currency to determine stability(import/export) However if we experience a large recession this can cause an avalanche effect(2008-2012 Great Recession) with global instability. If we have an agreed asset for exchange such as XRP for settlements then that would essentially be what gold was and prevent severe recessions(limit global impact).
https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/forex/how-forex-exchange-rates-set.asp
Banks make large transactions, so considering banks in 1920 utilized gold and $20 was seen as a common denomination to transfer funds. With 1100% inflation until 2017 what would it be worth in today's dollars? Approximately $255.48, considering the population and production capacity of the time that would probably change to something higher.
https://www.saving.org/inflation/inflation.php?amount=20&year=1920
I'm not claiming that XRP is gold, or will be a standard. However when banks start utilizing XRP they may be more concerned with its value than that of other currencies. Which would place a high demand on it and I can't see why that wouldn't be a big picture view for the future. If 2500 banks used XRP this way I can't see how exponential growth couldn't happen. Also it is a deflationary asset so enough holders and that will just multiply it's value along with escrow limiting supply.
I could just be totally wrong though, lol.
submitted by Destruktum to Ripple [link] [comments]

The big fat r/Forex FOMC Minutes and Dollar thread

Let's talk FOMC and the USD.
FOMC Minutes
The short version is that after parsing through the language of the FOMC minutes, most analysts see a somewhat mixed to positive message:
Also
Why are the minutes important?
The key to understanding why FOMC is important this time comes from this statement:
Interest rates up means dollar up, it's that easy. 10 year rate hit 2.93% today, wow!
USD
Most targets, except for USDJPY due to it's correlation to SPX/SPY and DJI, are bullish. I saw several small gap downs in futures which represent a strong opening for the USD. USDCAD is looking to tear. AUDUSD is potentially breaking a huge support line at .7800.
You aren't getting 100% guidance because that doesn't exist in FX. It's anebvulous message. There is likely other factors too:
All in all is seems to be bullish for USD. Read this: https://www.fxstreet.com/news/forex-today-turn-around-fomc-minutes-bargain-hunters-buy-back-the-dollar-201802212341
So, what say you?
submitted by El_Huachinango to Forex [link] [comments]

ITT: I teach you how simple it is to trade Fundemental Analysis

I did one for technical analysis, so here's one for fundemental analysis (here is the previous thread: http://www.reddit.com/Forex/comments/2nc2dt/itt_i_teach_you_how_simple_it_is_to_make_money_in/ )
Steps:
  1. Realize that Fundemental Analysis is extremely important to the success of a trader who trades the Daily and above timeframes. The goal is to make sure that the trend from TA lines up with the view from FA. (ie. Bullish FA + Bullish TA= success).
  2. Go to http://www.forexfactory.com/calendar.php to view all news events. Change the settings to show only [RED] expected impact. We mainly care about Inflation, Central Banks, and Speeches. Red just means high volatility upon release.
  3. The BIGGEST problem most people have with trading FA is that they think EVERY red news is important. That is FALSE. We mainly care about the Central Banks and what they do with any Stimulus, Interest Rates, and Inflation. These are the 3 holy grails for trading FA. The Central Bank are the ones who calls the shots.
  4. Go to www.investopedia.com and learn what Central banks montary statements, Quantiative Easing, Interest Rates, and Inflation really is. You want to know how the market reacts to a Quantiative easing, highelower intrest rates or inflation, ect ect ect.
  5. Every month or so, a country will release a statement that's given by the central bank. You will need to read these statements, and trust me it's not hard. It's only once a month for each currency for gods sakes.

    Currency|BankName

    EUR: ECB

    USD: FOMC

    AUD: RBA

    NZD: RBNZ

    CAD: BOC

    JPY: BOJ

    GBP: BOE

  6. Click on this image: http://prntscr.com/5vixoy .

    The Red box is what you click on to bring down more information.

    The Pink box is a basic outline of what that news event is.

    The blue box is the important one. This is where 3rd party news articles about that news event is posted. (i prefer bloomberg and reuters).

    Click on any of them to read it. Notice that they fill up with 3rd party articles AFTER the news release (duh).
  7. The point isn't to trade before the central bank news release, but AFTERWARDS. You want to know what the central bank is thinking. An example: Doing a Quantitative easing will cause the value of a currency to fall, since USD did 3 quantitative easing in the past, this happened: http://prntscr.com/5tuebl . Notice how when the bank said they WILL do it soon, it caused a rally. We love these rallys. We make $$$ off this shit.
  8. So you basically want to read what they are saying and figure out which direction they are looking towards. Not every country is WANTING to increase the value of their currency. Some care more about inflation, interest rates, unemployment, ect. Reading the central bank statements will TELL YOU. Remember to always keep in mind that market sentiment WILL change based on economic data releases. Meaning if we know USD will be bullish, it's only once certainly bullish IF criteria is met. That criteria may be any of the economic indicators, and if they're NOT met, expect pullbacks. You can either trade these pullbacks (bit risky) or you can use them as opportunities to make trades toward the overall goal of the central bank (Buy USD in this case). Also, don't think that when a central bank says 'we want to increase interest rates in February.' means that they WILL do it in February. If the indicators aren't good, they won't increase it.
  9. Example: BOJ wants to issue a quantitative easing stimulus on 10-31-2014. So, Trebel decides to not use his indicators and decides to short JPY because he learned that doing a Quantiative easing stimulus causes the value of that currency to fall dramatically (not to mention Tecnical analysis says that the trend for JPY is bearish)! Trebel is now happy and can go chase some big booties with his money.
  10. Example 2: SilkyBrah decides to buy JPY because they had good unemployment numbers , but later he finds out he got margin called. WHY?! Because JPY doesn't care about their unemployment numbers like USA does, they care about something else. SilkyBrah will next time read the central bank statement to know what event is important for that country.
Some of you probably don't understand WHICH news event is from the central bank, so here's a picture: http://prntscr.com/5vj12g
EDIT: I tried to dumb this down as much as possible.
Thanks for the Reddit gild/gold whoever it was. No idea what I do with them though lol
EDIT2: Okay. Bloomberg's new website layout is beyond horrible. I now will use Reuters and other competitors instead.
submitted by masudhossain to Forex [link] [comments]

BlockChain Enable a Quadrillion-Dollar Derivatives Market?

BlockChain Enable a Quadrillion-Dollar Derivatives Market?
https://preview.redd.it/iwewapkg8mz11.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=9b52f51960172844af71917aec191dcfd6031bf9
CAN BLOCKCHAIN ENABLE A QUADRILLION-DOLLAR DERIVATIVES MARKET? IT’S A REAL POSSIBILITY. By 2028, the world economy has exploded with exponential economic growth. BlockChain is now the heart of commerce and trade. Investopedia’s valuation on the Derivatives Market now stands true at $1.2 quadrillion. And you are now very rich with your array of futures, derivatives and cryptocurrencies on hand. Isn’t this a nice possibility?
Now, imagine travelling back to 2018.
You are scrolling your news feed. The headlines show in 2017 alone, BlockChain startups have raised $1.2 billion worth initial coin offering (ICOs). ICOs enable startups, to raise money from the general public by allowing them to buy a stake in their business; which comes in a form of a token or digital currency. It looks like the public are beginning to understand the potential of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.
A Facebook notification pops up on your mobile phone. Your friend has posted an article on your Facebook wall. The article is about Ethereum, the hot new BlockChain technology that is creating even bigger ripples in the finance world than its predecessor BitCoin. It seems that Ethereum is now the birthplace of many decentralized platforms, which raise funds via ICOs. As more funds are raised, these platforms get better and this drives up the value of Ethereum. The top platforms are Golem, Augur, Basic Attention Tokens and Gnosis, which collectively ring in $1.27 billion in market value. The amount of money that has been invested into Ethereum based BlockChain technology shows that people see Blockchain as the future of commerce and finance.
This all sounds good and you’re ready to participate in a hot ICO. But as a possible new investor in an ICO based on the Ethereum blockchain, how do you get started? Which platform and ICO should you consider investing in?
  1. YOU WILL NEED TO GET A WALLET. Wallets are like digital bank accounts, they hold your tokens and other cryptocurrencies you plan to buy and hold. Most ICOs are built on Ethereum smart contracts and your Wallet has to support receiving tokens. In an ICO, you send currency (typically ETH or BTC) to the company issuing a new token and receive the amount of tokens based on the given exchange rate by the company. MyEtherWallet is one of the most popular Ethereum Wallets because it is linked to the BlockChain, has excellent security features, and best of all it gives you full control of your Wallet (unlike other online wallets that are controlled by third party companies). You can get MyEtherWallet here.
  2. RESEARCH EXTENSIVELY ON AVAILABLE ICOS As with any form of investment, you need to do your research and due diligence. Unlike the research on conventional investments that look at statistics, company performance, average daily volume and annual yield, ICOs require a different kind of analysis. Often times, millions of dollars are raised in ICOs with no product or company track record. Most traditional investors would not invest as the risk outweigh the gains from the investment. It feels like a gamble.
How then would you know if an ICO is worth investing into?
First of all, you would need to study its platform concept, market potential and sustainability for long-term growth.
Is it easy for users to adopt and understand?
Do the Founders and Developers of the platform have sound knowledge of economics, inflation, block size, fees, administration, security and human behavior?
Does the crypto-economic system have what it takes to be sustainable?
Who is the team behind the platform? Are they knowledgeable and experienced?
Is this a revolutionary or game-changing product that has massive market potential?
Take Level01 as an example. It is the World’s First Brokerless Derivatives Exchange in Partnership with Thomson Reuters. The concept is innovative, more importantly; it has an enticing proposition because it addresses gaps, issues and problems faced by traditional trading markets. This facilitates a stable, robust and potentially profitable investment eco-system. How so?
Remember Investopedia’s valuation of the derivatives market at a thrilling $1.2 quadrillion? This estimate is debatable because it needed to consider, “notional value”, versus actual market value. The lack of certainty on pricing and not having accurate market data can be frustrating. Brokers also charge a fee for both ends; buying and selling, which makes it expensive to participate in trade. In addition, not everyone relishes in the prospect of understanding financial data, terms and conditions. These factors are barriers to entry that reduces the pool of investors in the derivatives market.
The Founders of Level01 saw all these and sought to develop solutions that can make investing easy, transparent, secure and fair, by using the Blockchain and partnership with financial market leader, Thomson Reuters.
AN APP THAT MAKES ANYONE A BETTER INVESTOR Whether you are a first time investor or an experienced investor, the Level01 App will help you make better investment decisions, save time and get better at investing in the Derivatives Market. Its sleek interface, smart data feed and intuitive features are designed to fit all investor types to make the trading experience as easy as 1, 2, 3.
CHANGING THE GAME WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE When you log on, the Level01 platform, you will have FairSenseTM Artificial Intelligence on hand to analyze trade intent patterns of all users on the platform to find the best matches for you. Once a match is found, it employs its proprietary dynamic fair price-balancing algorithm to show fair pricing for both sides of the trade contract. This saves investors time, speeds up trade, and keeps inflation in check with fair pricing.
CREDIBLE AND RELIABLE DATA FEED FROM THOMSON REUTERS Level01 raised the bar further by collaborating with Thomson Reuters. They integrated and enabled live streaming real-time market prices for Forex, Index, Cryptocurrency, Commodities and Stocks directly from Thomson Reuters, a global leader for information and data sources for professional markets. Having a 150-year-old brand name like Thomson Reuters lends tremendous credibility to the data and keeps investors informed of actual value prior to the commencement of the trade.
AUTOMATED SMART CONTRACTS As if that was not enough, the Level01 is designed as an exchange and trading platform with a system of smart contracts that resolves trust, emotion and irresponsibility in an efficient, transparent, automated manner. These automated digital contracts saves time and money for investors so that they can concentrate on analyzing data and deciding on investments.
SUSTAINABLE GROWTH DRIVEN BY USERS You may be thinking by now, that is all well and good, but what are they doing to make this unique Derivatives Exchange sustainable and primed for growth? The designers of Level01 looked towards attracting quality investors by incorporating a fair rating system based on statistics and empowering them with the ability to add value to the network, and derive value for themselves. Level01 rewards users when they participate in the ecosystem. To make it even more enticing, the Level01 platform enables Trade Room Hosting, which allows users to earn commission. These lucrative set points are attractive to users who will jump on board and increase the liquidity base, which of course, benefits everyone.
BETTER FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY Sometimes being able to sell is as important as being able to buy. This means your assets and investments can be easily converted to cash. Level01 gives you full control over your own funds by allowing your deposits and withdrawals to be done instantly. You can also change the native platform LVX tokens between BitCoin and Ethereum for better financial liquidity.
WIDER FINANCIAL PORTFOLIO Level01 allows you to trade both traditional and cryptocurrency market assets to give you greater ease and freedom to plan a diverse portfolio to suit your needs whether you like to play it safe or take profitable risks.
DIVERSE AND EXPERIENCED TEAM An international team with accolades, achievements and awards helms Level01 Derivatives Exchange. There is a mathematician and data analyst, a software engineer and system architect, a highly ranked digital marketing specialist, an expert in corporate operations, a consultant in banking and finance, a key quantitative analyst consultant who over saw $25B AUM, a corporate strategist and brand planning expert and an inventor-CEO with a string of successes under his belt, including founding a successful public listed company in Australia.
GROWING INTEREST Level01 just begun but it is already making waves in the cryptocurrency and investment world. Forums and chat groups are buzzing with conversations as seasoned cryptocurrency investors hop on the bandwagon, eager to sweep up ICOs before the rest of the world notices. Coin Telegraph, which is the top news portal on cryptocurrency, described Level01 partnership with Thomson Reuters as a great game-changer that will allow general public to trade derivatives like a pro using big data previously only available to institutional traders.
Could this be your ticket to making your 2028 the best year ever? As if you invested in Google back in 2004. You can check out more about this upcoming platform here.
submitted by Level01Exchange to u/Level01Exchange [link] [comments]

First R1 of some stupid deficit fear mongering video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uZLdqmA4nqw
First of all, I don't have any formal training in macroeconomics beside a course or two in college and what I've read online, but this video was actually shown in class by my prof(thankfully not an economics prof, but a finance prof nonetheless). There will be probably be some bad economics here of my own. I am sure you guys can do a far better R1 on this then I did, and I would appreciate if someone did, actually.
It is also interesting how this video is labelled "2014 Collapse" but has data from around the recession, when the government had an expansionary fiscal policy combined with a recession, leading to a larger budget deficit than usual.
At 0:37
Ever think about paying your mortgage with your credit card, that's exactly what uncle sam does(by issuing new bonds to pay interest on old bonds)
Wow, first of all, the interest rate on treasury bonds is far far lower than on any mortgage or credit cards. Secondly, a sovereign borrower is not like an individual. A sovereign government has a far, far larger credit "line", is perpetual, can increase their revenue substantially through tax raises, and their debt is actually demanded by hundreds of millions of individuals and institutions around the globe.
1:08
It's such a huge amount of money, uncle sam is running out of people to borrow money from
Standard & Poor's credit rating for the United States stands at AA+ with stable outlook. Moody's credit rating for the United States was last set at Aaa with stable outlook. Fitch's credit rating for the United States was last reported at AAA with stable outlook. . In general, a credit rating is used by sovereign wealth funds, pension funds and other investors to gauge the credit worthiness of the United States thus having a big impact on the country's borrowing costs. This page includes the government debt credit rating for the United States as reported by major credit rating agencies
http://www.statista.com/statistics/189302/trading-volume-of-us-treasury-securities-since-1990/
2:26
Remember the foreign governments that lent money to Uncle Sam, when they lent money to uncle sam, something interesting happened. It made the US look richer, and their countries look poorer
Does China investing the trillions of US forex they have on US bonds really make the US dollar appreciate?I understand capital inflows can increase demand for a currency, but did it really happen to extent that it provided a significant incentive for US companies to outsource operations, as he states later on?
When a country looks poor due to America, one dollar of our money, buys a lot of their money, so they can pay their workers only a few pennies a day. With such low labor costs, they can sell their products in America for lower prices than any American manufacturer can.
Obviously the difference in currency prices can affect the trade balance, but the inherent reason why Chinese goods and manufacturing is cheaper is because the the cost of labor and operations there is just a fraction of what it is in the US, in real terms.
2:50
The easiest way for American companies to compete, is to move their factories overseas, and pay their workers a few pennies a day too. This contributes to a recession
Ah yes, an increase in trade between China and the US and the wage depreciation among workers of America's massive industrial sector has been demonstrated to cause recessions
3:40
He[Uncle Sam] can't have the federal reserve make more money without making the inflation worse"
Obviously expansionary monetary policy tends to increase the rate of money supply growth in the economy and thus inflation, but the level of inflation wasn't above the threshold where it could be a problem. The recession actually had deflationary pressures rather inflationary,.
Since the 2008 financial crisis, the U.S. Federal Reserve has kept interest rates near zero and pursued a bond-buying program – now discontinued – known as quantitative easing. Some critics of the program alleged it would cause a spike in inflation in the U.S. dollar, but inflation peaked in 2007 and declined steadily over the next eight years. There are many, complex reasons why QE didn't lead to inflation or hyperinflation, though the simplest explanation is that the recession was a strong deflationary environment, and quantitative easing ameliorated its effect
3:57
Whether its in two months or two years, the day will come when uncle sam can no longer pay its bills
Its been more than two years since this video was posted on youtube(most likely just a retitled version of an older video), the US government still has by far the best credit rating in the world.
submitted by FlairCannon to badeconomics [link] [comments]

ITT: I teach you how simple it is to trade Fundemental Analysis

I did one for technical analysis, so here's one for fundemental analysis.
Steps:
  1. Realize that Fundemental Analysis is extremely important to the success of a trader who trades the Daily and above timeframes. The goal is to make sure that the trend from TA lines up with the view from FA. (ie. Bullish FA + Bullish TA= success).
  2. Go to http://www.forexfactory.com/calendar.php to view all news events. Change the settings to show only [RED] expected impact. We mainly care about Inflation, Central Banks, and Speeches. Red just means high volatility upon release.
  3. The BIGGEST problem most people have with trading FA is that they think EVERY red news is important. That is FALSE. We mainly care about the Central Banks and what they do with any Stimulus, Interest Rates, and Inflation. These are the 3 holy grails for trading FA. The Central Bank are the ones who calls the shots.
  4. Go to www.investopedia.com and learn what Central banks montary statements, Quantiative Easing, Interest Rates, and Inflation really is. You want to know how the market reacts to a Quantiative easing, highelower intrest rates or inflation, ect ect ect.
  5. Every month or so, a country will release a statement that's given by the central bank. You will need to read these statements, and trust me it's not hard. It's only once a month for each currency for gods sakes.

    Currency|BankName

    EUR: ECB

    USD: FOMC

    AUD: RBA

    NZD: RBNZ

    CAD: BOC

    JPY: BOJ

    GBP: BOE

  6. Click on this image: http://prntscr.com/5vixoy .

    The Red box is what you click on to bring down more information.

    The Pink box is a basic outline of what that news event is.

    The blue box is the important one. This is where 3rd party news articles about that news event is posted. (i prefer bloomberg and reuters).

    Click on any of them to read it. Notice that they fill up with 3rd party articles AFTER the news release (duh).
  7. The point isn't to trade before the central bank news release, but AFTERWARDS. You want to know what the central bank is thinking. An example: Doing a Quantiative easing will cause the value of a currency to fall, since USD did 3 quantiative easing in the past, this happened: http://prntscr.com/5tuebl . Notice how when the bank said they WILL do it soon, it caused a rally. We love these rallys. We make $$$ off this shit.
  8. So you basically want to read what they are saying and figure out which direction they are looking towards. Not every country is WANTING to increase the value of their currency. Some care more about inflation, interest rates, unemployment, ect. Reading the central bank statements will TELL YOU.
  9. Example: BOJ wants to issue a quantitative easing stimulus on 10-31-2014. So, Trebel decides to not use his indicators and decides to short JPY because he learned that doing a Quantiative easing stimulus causes the value of that currency to fall dramatically (not to mention Tecnical analysis says that the trend for JPY is bearish)! Trebel is now happy and can go chase some big booties with his money.
  10. Example 2: SilkyBrah decides to buy JPY because they had good unemployment numbers , but later he finds out he got margin called. WHY?! Because JPY doesn't care about their unemployment numbers like USA does, they care about something else. SilkyBrah will next time read the central bank statement to know what event is important for that country.
Some of you probably don't understand WHICH news event is from the central bank, so here's a picture: http://prntscr.com/5vj12g
EDIT: I tried to dumb this down as much as possible.
And here is the previous thread: http://www.reddit.com/Forex/comments/2nc2dt/itt_i_teach_you_how_simple_it_is_to_make_money_in/
submitted by masudhossain to Fundamentalanalysis [link] [comments]

Floating and Fixed Exchange Rates- Macroeconomics - YouTube Supply and Demand: Crash Course Economics #4 - YouTube What is Inflation? - YouTube Imports, Exports, and Exchange Rates: Crash Course ... Jacob Clifford - YouTube Supply and Demand Explained in One Minute - YouTube

FOREX.com is a trading name of GAIN Capital - FOREX.com Canada Limited, 135 US Hwy 202/206, Bedminster, NJ 07921, USA is a member of the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada and Member of the Canadian Investor Protection Fund. GAIN Capital Group LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of StoneX Group Inc. Investopedia Simulator review by forextrading.biz stock trading experts, all about Investopedia simulator online trading platform, Finding out what is Investopedia simulator app.. What is Investopedia. Investopedia is a financial American website based in New York City that focuses on investing education and financial news. The website was founded by Cory Wagner and Cory Janssen in Edmonton ... In 2018, U.S. tariffs reduced supplies of imported steel. That created ... Cost-pull inflation happens when supply decreases, creating a shortage. Producers raise prices to meet the increasing demand for their goods or services. Increase in wages, monopoly pricing, natural disasters, government regulations, and currency exchange rates often decrease supply vis-à-vis demand.   Article ... Forex Fundamental Analysis. Join Tradimo's Premium Club And Choose a Membership Right For You. 1,000+ hours of videos, quizzes & projects; 150,000+ students rate our courses 4,8/5 every month ; Private access to trading & investing mentorship; Trading & investing signal community with 40% return p.a.* Completion certificate for your resumé & LinkedIn; The trading and investing signals are ... A pegged currency can give a country many advantages, but these advantages come at a price. The single biggest concern with pegging currency is future inflation. Inflation Hawk Definition. A Hawk or an inflation Hawk is a financial advisor or policymaker who believes that monetary policies should maintain high-interest rates to curb inflation. They are primarily interested in high-interest rates as they relate to Fiscal policy. Hawks are generally not concerned with economic growth but, support an ... Imported inflation. The price of imported goods will go up because they are more expensive to buy from abroad; Higher domestic demand. Cheaper exports increases demand for UK exports. THere is also a reduction in demand for imported goods, shifting consumption to domestic goods Therefore, there is an increase in domestic aggregate demand (AD), and we may get demand-pull inflation. Less ... Devaluation – increasing cost of imported goods, and also the boost to domestic demand. Rising wages – higher wages increase firms costs and increase consumers’ disposable income to spend more. Expectations of inflation – causes workers to demand wage increases and firms to push up prices. Investopedia Forex indepth walkthrough can all act as invaluable guides on your journey into currency trading. Now that you've got your feet wet in the Forex market, let's take a look at the role leverage plays in the fx market. Level 2 Markets - Research And Testing When trading anything, you never want to trade impulsively. You need to Inflation . A devalued currency can result in "imported" inflation for countries that are substantial importers. A sudden 20% decline in the domestic currency could result in imports costing 25% ...

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Floating and Fixed Exchange Rates- Macroeconomics - YouTube

What is a trade deficit? Well, it all has to do with imports and exports and, well, trade. This week Jacob and Adriene walk you through the basics of imports... In this video I explain the market for foreign exchange and national currencies. If you want more practice, check out the Ultimate Review Packet for FREE: ht... Float it or fix it? Mr. Clifford expalins the difference between floating and fixed exchange rates and how countries peg the value of their currency to another ... I'm Jacob Clifford and I make videos to help people understand economics. I'm also the co-host of Crash Course Economics. STUDENTS- If you need help learning... Economists constantly refer to inflation and tend to suggest it is a Very Bad Thing. But why exactly, where does it come from and what could one do to tame i... A one-minute video explanation of supply and demand. In the world of economics, supply and demand is perhaps the #1 term you come across, yet far too few peo... In which Adriene Hill and Jacob Clifford teach you about one of the fundamental economic ideas, supply and demand. What is supply and demand? Well, you’ll ha...

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